Emerging technologies such as quantum computing and quantum simulation are realized by manipulating and controlling the unique properties and behaviors of quanta (atoms, electrons, photons, etc.) such as duality, superposition, and entanglement.
Laser cooling is a technique developed in the late 1980s that utilizes lasers to cool or trap gas atoms. In 1995, laser cooling contributed to the realization of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) produced in a vapor of rubidium-87 atoms. Laser cooling and BEC enabled observation of the quantum mechanical behavior of single atoms and ions.
Quantum imaging is an imaging technique that utilizes quantum characteristics of light to realize highly sensitive or special imaging methods. One of these methods known as “ghost imaging” acquires images of entanglement by detecting correlated entangled photons. Ghost imaging has captured researchers’ interest in recent years.
The ImagEM X2 EM-CCD camera can detect single photons with enough sensitivity to enable researchers to observe phenomenon such as quantum entanglement.
The LCOS-SLM is a reflective spatial light modulator that freely controls the phase of light with a liquid crystal. Precise wavefront control enables the generation of higher-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams.
The HPD is a photodetector that can detect photons with high sensitivity, fast response, and low jitter. HPDs maximize detection efficiency and have lower excess noise than PMTs, resulting in better signal-to-noise ratio than PMTs.
Neutral atoms and trapped ions use laser cooling to cool down the atoms or ions, which in turn slows down their motion. Optical tweezers are used to trap neutral atoms while traps such as Penning traps or Paul traps utilize electric fields to create potentials that confine ions. A large number of beam spots can be generated by combining the spatial light phase modulator (LCOS-SLM) with an appropriate phase pattern and optical system. Trapping neutral atoms at those spot positions allows neutral atoms to be arranged in any array configuration. Neutral atoms and trapped ions can be configured in a "superposition state," which means that their state is encoded using both the “0” state and “1” state also known as a qubit. Trapped ions’ and neutral atoms’ positions are monitored using a high-sensitivity camera. Observing the fluorescence, or lack thereof, for trapped ions and neutral atoms indicates the state of the qubit. Photon counting detectors such as PMTs are typically used for reading out the qubit state of trapped ions while EM-CCD cameras are used for reading out the qubit state of neutral atoms. Quantum mechanical behavior can be manipulated to realize applications such as quantum computing and quantum simulations.
The ORCA-Fusion BT digital CMOS camera enables quantitative detection of weak fluorescent light from trapped ions and neutral atoms. The camera’s low noise floor, high QE, and zero excess noise factor due to gain make it an attractive option for neutral atom qubit readout as well as monitoring trapped ions.
The ImagEM X2 EM-CCD camera can detect single photons and capture the weak fluorescent light from an atom or ion.
The LCOS-SLM is a reflective spatial light modulator that freely controls the phase of light with a liquid crystal. Controlling the phase (wavefront) with LCOS-SLM enables researchers to generate a highly efficient optical microtrap array.
The photon counting head H10682 series is a module that enables photon counting measurement of ion fluorescence with high sensitivity and low noise.
The 64-channel multianode PMT assembly H12428 series is an assembly that can detect fluorescence of multiple ions in a 64-channel matrix.
The 32-channel linear array multianode PMT module H11460 series is a low crosstalk module that can detect fluorescence of multiple ions with a 32-channel linear array. (The photon counting module H12211 is also available.)
The HPD is a photodetector that can detect fluorescence with high sensitivity, fast response, and low jitter. HPDs maximize quantum efficiency and have lower excess noise than PMTs, resulting in better signal-to-noise ratio than PMTs.
Diamond is a carbon crystal. If you remove a carbon atom in the crystal lattice and replace it with a nitrogen atom, this results in the creation of electron vacancies, hence the term “nitrogen vacancy.” Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers have the property of reacting very sensitively to changes in the surrounding environment and to changes in the quantum state, and this property can be used as a sensor function. For this reason, a diamond with an NV center is counted as a "quantum sensor" and is attracting attention as a next-generation ultra-sensitive sensor. Nitrogen vacancy is an attractive qubit modality for quantum computation and quantum simulation since it has the ability to operate at room temperature.
The ORCA-Fusion BT digital CMOS camera enables quantitative detection of weak fluorescence from the NV center while maintaining high resolution.
The LCOS-SLM is a reflective spatial light modulator that freely controls the phase of light with a liquid crystal. Precise wave-front control enables simultaneous multi-point irradiation.
MPPC features high gain (about 106), high photon detection efficiency for detecting 650nm NV fluorescence, wide dynamic range, and excellent photon peak value discrimination ability, so it can obtain high S/N for high-speed, weak signals. MPPC modules are available which incorporate the MPPC, amplifier, and power supply which makes them easy to use.
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