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Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy

Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising spectroscopic technique capable of obtaining information on intermolecular vibrations and crystals. Because different information is obtained compared to that from wavelengths used in UV-visible and infrared spectroscopy, THz spectroscopy is an advantageous, non-invasive approach to eliminating the problems encountered in conventional spectroscopic analysis.

THz wave


THz waves are electromagnetic waves located between light and radio waves, which are 0.1 THz to 10 THz in frequency (1 THz is equivalent to 300 μm, 33 cm-1, or 4 meV). The THz wave band has a longer wavelength and lower photon energy than visible light, so it is the focus of recent intense study since its electromagnetic waves can yield new spectroscopic information such as intermolecular vibrations via hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, crystal lattice vibrations, molecular rotations, and the relaxing of these vibrations and rotations.


  • Frequency corresponding to intermolecular vibrations, crystal lattice vibrations, and molecular relaxation.
  • Strong absorption by water.
  • Low invasiveness

Phenomena sensitive to THz waves

  • Weak forces called intermolecular forces are present between molecules.
  • THz waves interact with intermolecular forces and are absorbed.
  • The absorbed wavelength differs depending on the difference in intermolecular forces and the arrangement of molecules.

*Intermolecular forces: Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds, etc.

  • The motion of molecules with partial charges (polar molecules) causes them to align while interacting with the THz wave electric field.
  • How easily the molecules move at this time determines the THz absorption characteristics.

THz's advantages in applications

THz spectroscopy has advantages over other spectroscopic techniques even in applications that require difficult measurements and complicated processes.

  • Determination and evaluation of material deterioration, or screening good and defective products by measuring molecular vibrations, crystalline changes, etc.
  • Easy and simple screening of incoming raw materials such as for pharmaceuticals.
  • Evaluation of the fermentation process using stable, continuous measurements.
  • Real-time monitoring of crystal transitions using stable, continuous measurements.
  • Real-time monitoring and analysis if the target product of a chemical synthesis was produced.
  • Quantitative evaluation of solutes, such as aqueous solutions, by obtaining a calibration curve based on the refractive index, absorption coefficient, etc.
  • Measurement of crystallinity and crystalline forms (shape) using THz wave's sensitivity to crystals.
  • Measurement of high concentrations without requiring dilution.
  • Non-destructive water/moisture content measurement using a calibration curve causes no harm that may occur in chemical and weight measurements.
  • Others: measurement and evaluation of changes caused by intermolecular interactions.

Recommended products

Terahertz spectrometer

This is an attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectrometer integrating a terahertz (THz) wave emitter, detector, and total reflection prism into a single unit. ATR spectroscopy using the C12068 series is unaffected by water vapor in the environment and ensures high stability and easy operability.

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