We are working on the development and application of technology to evaluate photosynthesis using optical devices. This technology is expected to be applied to ecosystem conservation, agricultural chemical development, water purification, tree planting, aquaculture, and atmospheric evaluation.
As a foundation for a sustainable society, photosynthesis supplies food and biomass to our lives and industries, and plays an important role in environmental purification and ecosystem conservation.
Plant photon is very weak luminescence detected from "photosynthetic organisms" such as algae and plants. It can be detected by a photon detector such as a photomultiplier tube or MPPC, or a high-sensitivity camera with a multiplication function.
By measuring plant photons, you can directly see the movement of photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, chlorophyll uses light energy to decompose water and extract electrons. Electrons are stored in the carrier molecule, most of which is used as energy for photosynthesis. A small part of the stored electrons are converted back to “plant photons”. Plant photons slowly shine in the dark after the external light is extinguished and can be detected with a high sensitivity camera with a photomultiplier tube.
Photon counting image
It seems that 100,000 kinds of chemical substances are used all over the world. Hazard to humans and organisms (environmental risk) when released into the environment can be determined by chemical analysis and bioassay. Chemical analysis measures the amount of substances, and instruments such as GC / MS and LC / MS are used. Bioassay is a technique that uses living organisms to examine the relationship between the amount of substances and their toxicity. Fish, daphnia, algae, plants, etc. are used. The relationship between the two can be used to judge the hazard risk of chemical substances and to develop safe chemical substances.
Plant photons are expected to be useful in bioassays to assess water pollution. Algae grow through biomass production by photosynthesis. If the algae metabolism is inhibited by chemical substances, biomass production will decrease and the growth rate will decrease. In conventional bioassays, growth inhibition is evaluated by counting the number of cells. We have developed a technique to estimate growth inhibition in a short time by evaluating the luminescence inhibition of plant photons that reflect photosynthesis. This technique is called algal luminescence toxicity test.
For the sustainable use of fishery resources, further development of aquaculture is expected. Algae has been cultivated in large quantities as aquaculture feeds.
Chaetoceros is one of the feed algae for shellfish and crustaceans.
Macrophytes (aquatic plants) growing on the waterside and its surrounding ecosystems play a role as a place of water purification by absorption of nutrients and breeding of aquatic animals.
Duckweed is a familiar aquatic plant that grows in paddy fields.
Reef corals are animal, but It can do photosynthesis by symbiotic algae.
Although coral reefs are an important place for ocean biodiversity, it is said that 20% of coral reefs are destroyed and 50% are in danger. The cause is considered climate change and marine pollution.
Lichens are composites of a fungus and an algae. It does photosynthesis with absorbing rain and minerals. Lichens population is decreased by air pollution, like a sulfur dioxide.
Parmotrema is a Lichen that proposed as indicator of air pollution in Japan.
Proteins supplied from grain, animal husbandry and fishery products are concerned about supply shortage due to population increase and climate change. Algae is attracting attention as a new production source.
Spirulina is a protein-rich alga that can be provide in large scale, commercially.
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