In a semiconductor, insulator, or metal, electrons surrounding the nucleus are present in energy levels with a certain width. In semiconductors or insulators, among the energy bands where electrons exist, the highest energy band filled with electrons at absolute zero degrees is called the valence band, and the energy band with no electrons is called the conduction band. The energy range in the band gap (forbidden band) between the valence band and the conduction band is called the band gap energy. In metals, there is no band gap because the valence band and conduction band overlap each other.
The bias angle of a microchannel plate is the angle between the channel wall and a line perpendicular to the input plane. The detection efficiency of an MCP for charged particles and electromagnetic radiation can be optimized by controlling the angle of incidence of the input event. Typical bias angles range from of 5° to 15°.
A circuit used to apply a DC bias to a device. This circuit is capable of applying a DC bias while maintaining an impedance match and is therefore needed when using a high-speed device.
An encoding method of modulating signals so that “0” signals or “1” signals will not occur in consecutive 3 bits or more. Compared to NRZ signals, bi-phase signals have two-fold redundancy and the bandwidth usage efficiency is 50%. As one example, a 25 Mbps bi-phase signal is equivalent to an NRZ signal of 50 Mbps. Bi-phase signals offer the advantage that they can extract clock components by using a simple circuit. Other encoding methods similar to bi-phase signals include CMI (coded mark inversion) and Manchester encoding.
This is one measure for evaluating the transmission quality of digital transmissions. It indicates the probability that the transmitted codes may be incorrectly identified. The bit error rate is intimately related to the S/N, but there are cases where the bit error rate is not determined just by the S/N.
A phenomenon in which the photoelectrically converted signal charge in an image sensor exceeds a certain level and spills over into adjacent pixels or transfer region other than photodiodes (in IT type CCDs). In CCDs, the spill-out charge appears in the image as a vertical stripe occurring from thelight incident position the same as with “smear.” To prevent blooming, some means for discharging excess charge should be implemented. In CCDs, this blooming is suppressed by using a vertical/horizontal anti-blooming or clocking method.
A coherent, strong reflection that occurs at a particular angle at which the phases are matched by multiple surface reflections when monochromatic light strikes a light-scattering material with a cyclically arranged structure. This technique is utilized to fabricate resonators in semiconductor lasers.
As the reverse voltage applied to a PN junction is raised, an abrupt increase in reverse current occurs at a certain voltage. This voltage is called the breakdown voltage. As a guide for convenience when evaluating our Si APD, the voltage that produces a reverse current of 100 uA is specified as the breakdown voltage.
A technology for fabricating bumps (metal protrusions such as solders) on a semiconductor wafer. Bump bonding is used for three-dimensional mounting, and the fine-pitch bumps make devices smaller and more sophisticated.
It looks like you're in the . If this is not your location, please select the correct region or country below.
You're headed to Hamamatsu Photonics website for JP (English). If you want to view an other country's site, the optimized information will be provided by selecting options below.
For modern websites to work according to visitor’s expectations, they need to collect certain basic information about visitors. To do this, a site will create small text files which are placed on visitor’s devices (computer or mobile) - these files are known as cookies when you access a website. Cookies are used in order to make websites function and work efficiently. Cookies are uniquely assigned to each visitor and can only be read by a web server in the domain that issued the cookie to the visitor. Cookies cannot be used to run programs or deliver viruses to a visitor’s device.
Cookies do various jobs which make the visitor’s experience of the internet much smoother and more interactive. For instance, cookies are used to remember the visitor’s preferences on sites they visit often, to remember language preference and to help navigate between pages more efficiently. Much, though not all, of the data collected is anonymous, though some of it is designed to detect browsing patterns and approximate geographical location to improve the visitor experience.
Certain type of cookies may require the data subject’s consent before storing them on the computer.
This website uses two types of cookies:
There are two ways to manage cookie preferences.
If you wish to restrict or block web browser cookies which are set on your device then you can do this through your browser settings; the Help function within your browser should tell you how. Alternatively, you may wish to visit www.aboutcookies.org, which contains comprehensive information on how to do this on a wide variety of desktop browsers.
Occasionally, we may use internet tags (also known as action tags, single-pixel GIFs, clear GIFs, invisible GIFs and 1-by-1 GIFs) at this site and may deploy these tags/cookies through a third-party advertising partner or a web analytical service partner which may be located and store the respective information (including your IP-address) in a foreign country. These tags/cookies are placed on both online advertisements that bring users to this site and on different pages of this site. We use this technology to measure the visitors' responses to our sites and the effectiveness of our advertising campaigns (including how many times a page is opened and which information is consulted) as well as to evaluate your use of this website. The third-party partner or the web analytical service partner may be able to collect data about visitors to our and other sites because of these internet tags/cookies, may compose reports regarding the website’s activity for us and may provide further services which are related to the use of the website and the internet. They may provide such information to other parties if there is a legal requirement that they do so, or if they hire the other parties to process information on their behalf.
If you would like more information about web tags and cookies associated with on-line advertising or to opt-out of third-party collection of this information, please visit the Network Advertising Initiative website http://www.networkadvertising.org.
We use third-party cookies (such as Google Analytics) to track visitors on our website, to get reports about how visitors use the website and to inform, optimize and serve ads based on someone's past visits to our website.
You may opt-out of Google Analytics cookies by the websites provided by Google:
We inform you that in such case you will not be able to wholly use all functions of our website.