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dental

Panoramic and cephalometric imaging

Panoramic imaging

Panoramic imaging is a novel adaptation of dental radiography applied to show all the patient’s teeth in one large image. Panoramic dental X-rays are not considered diagnostic quality, but dentists find them very useful for screening new patients to identify problem areas with their teeth. Originally, large format film was used for panoramic systems; more recently, large format imaging plates for a CR system or digital image sensors are used to capture these images. Panoramic imaging systems require a precision motion system to move the film or detector in synchronization with the X-ray exposure. Panoramic imaging systems can be standalone or combined with cephalometric imaging to make a dual mode pan/ceph machine.

Hamamatsu offers X-ray sensitive TDI CCD image sensors suitable for digital panoramic imaging. A TDI image sensor has many vertical rows of pixels, which can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and overall image quality by repetitively sampling the image row by row. Hamamatsu's TDI CCDs have 128 vertical rows of pixels, which yields more than 10X higher SNR than a sensor with a single row of pixels would provide, making them ideal for high quality panoramic imaging. More recently, Hamamatsu has also developed novel CMOS image sensor modules suitable for panoramic imaging, which have the advantage of built-in electronics, making them very easy to adopt into newer system designs.

Example of panoramic dental X-ray image.

Cephalometric imaging

Cephalometric imaging is an offshoot of panoramic imaging primarily to assist orthodontists during patient diagnosis and treatment planning for braces, etc. Modern cephalometric imaging also makes use of a large format digital image sensor, though cephalometric sensors are larger in size than panoramic sensors as they need to capture the entire side of the patient’s face in one image. Originally, cephalometric imaging was typically combined with panoramic imaging to make a combination pan/ceph machine.

Example of cephalometric image.

Hamamatsu offers both TDI CCD and CMOS image sensor modules suitable for both panoramic and cephalometric imaging. The table below provides a simple selection guide.

Panoramic and cephalometric image sensor selection guide

Product No. Application Effective area (cm) Pixel size (μm) Frame rate (fps) Interface Product features
Pan 15 x 0.6 48 -- -- TDI CCD sensor*, Csl (Tl)
Ceph 22 x 0.6 48 -- -- TDI CCD sensor*, Csl (Tl)
C10500D-70 Pan Tomosynthesis 15 x 0.6 100 310 GigE CMOS sensor module, direct deposited Csl
C12504D-56 Pan Tomosynthesis 15 x 0.6 120 400 GigE CMOS sensor module, direct deposited Csl
C10502D-70 Ceph 22 x 0.6 100 310 GigE CMOS sensor module, direct deposited Csl
C12505D-56 Ceph 22 x 0.6 120 400 GigE CMOS sensor module, direct deposited Csl

Notes:
*Sensor only, no electrical circuitry included.

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