搬送波の波長を変えて、複数のデータを1芯の光ファイバケーブルに多重する方式。多重する密度により、DWDM (dense wavelength division multiplexing)、CWDM (coarse wavelength division multiplexing)があります。一般にDWDMは、1.55 μm帯 (1.3 μm帯・1.6 μm帯を使うものもある)に波長を8波以上、波長間隔0.4～3.2 nmで高密度に並べます。これに対しCWDMは、波長数が2～8波、波長間隔が20～数百nmです。
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